D E S I G N C r e at i o n o f T e c hn i c a l D es i g n C r e at i o n o f F un c t i o n a l D es i g n C r e at i o n o f C o n c e p t & Arc h i t e c t u re C r e at i o n o f R o a d m a p BU I LD P r o g r a mm i n g T e s t i n g E n t e r p ri s e Arc h i t e c t D o c um e n tat i o n F IN A N C E He a d c o un t S o f t w a r e W ri t e - o ff s T oo l W ri t e - o ff s I n t e r n a l F i n a n c i n g C o s t / Hu r d l e R a t e s C O MM I SS I O N I m p l e m e n tat i o n I n t e g r at i o n s D ata Cleansing & M i g r at i o n D e p l o y m e n t & C h a n g e M a n a g e m e n t T r a i n i n g MA IN T A I N T e c hn i c a l He l pd es k Updat e R o a d m a p P at c h es , Updat es & Upg r ad e s O P E R A T E App li c at i o n Ad m i n i s t r at i o n Ad o pt i o n S u pp o r t Ho s t i n g : C P U , S t o r a g e & I / O F un c t i o n a l He l pd es k D ata Admin AM BIVA L E N T UNA W A R E A PP A R E N T Ho w to c r e a t e a c o m p r e h e n siv e R O I c a lc u l a t i o n Tot a l C o s t o f B uil d in g B u s in e ss A pp li c a t i o n s Hover or click on an element for more information WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Design is the first element of the DBFMO framework. In the design phase you define the ‘what’ and ‘why’ of your build. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? In the Design phase you define what business challenges, pains and objectives you want to solve for. You link enabling functionality to business outcome. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The translation of functional specification into technical building blocks. Translation is dependent on platform and technology in use. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? In the technical design you get a first feeling of what you will get from your Build. It is the first hands-on piece. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The translation of Concept into functional requirements. Usability principles are usually defined here. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Functional requirements come to life in Use Cases. Use cases create context and make the link to the objective and business outcomes of the functionality. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Your definition of what the Build should deliver and how the solution is positioned in the grander application landscape. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Here you define the output and success criteria of your Build project. You also define the context and the guard rails. Whenever in doubt, you revert to this document to see if you are still on track. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Your definition of how your Build will evolve and adapt over time. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Considering both technology and user requirements are dynamic over time, you need to anticipate your moves over the intended lifecylce of your Build. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Build is the second element of the DBFMO framework. In the build phase you define ‘how’ and ‘who’ will build it. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? In the Build phase you convert an idea into an actual product. The build is what the end-user will get to use. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The actual creation of code. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The testing of the code. Usually tiered into unit test, system test and user acceptance test. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Ensuring a (near) bug-free end product. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? During the creation of the code the enterprise architect will guard the data model. What is system of record, who is leader/ follower? What is real-time or batch processing? Will the ensemble have a decent performance? WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Guardian of the IT landscape. Making sure the new application works together with the rest. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The technical documentation of the build and test scripts. The documentation for the intended users. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Users need to understand how and why the application works. Future developers need to know how the current product is built and how they should test it. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Finance is the third element of the DBFMO framework. In this phase, you define how you are going to fund all resources/costs that go into the creation of your Build. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Creation of a product/application is often a one-time effort, whereas the product/application is meant to be used over multiple years. The Capex incurred need to be split over the life cycle. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? To design and build the software, you need internal/external human resources. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Deployment of resources is typically driven by budgets. Hiring external developers is often very visible, whereas usage of internal resources may be clouded when those resources have multiple roles. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? To build software you need software development kits (SDK) and related software tools to build your code. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? SDKs can be costly and/or require additional licenses from your platform provider. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? To develop your own application, you need a development, testing and production environment. These environments need a (virtual) hardware platform (Hosting, CPU & Storage). Maintaining a development environment is a substantial cost element. Version control, backup, roll back, data prepping, etc. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? A development and testing platform needs to be designed, created, financed, maintained and operated. The associated costs incur write offs. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Define how you will record the internal and external head count costs that go into the Build. Expense those costs or accrue them on your balance sheet. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Most likely your organisation applies an internal hurdle rate for investments and/or requires a multiple on headcount expenditures. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Commissioning is an element of the DBFMO framework bridging the creation and the usage of a Build. In the commisssioning phase, you implement the software in the context of its intended use. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? A business application needs to be integrated into the existing enterprise landscape and it needs data. Users need to be trained to use the new tool. The value of the new tool will only materialise when you reach adoption. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The implementation of the newly built application in the context of the existing IT landscape. Includes configuration and customisation. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? A programmer creates the applicaiton in a development environment and tests it in a test environment. Both environments do not have all integrations and live data. The proof is in the pudding: the implementation in the production environment. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Making sure the newly built application integrates and talks to existing IT components. Eg. ETL loaders, Point-to-Point or middleware options. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? A new application is seldom a stand-alone application. Thus it needs to integrate into the enterprise data model. You want to avoid data duplication and swivel chair processes. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Your new application may have a different data model requiring data transformation. Often a new application is a trigger to clean-up old data. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? A new application is an ideal moment for a fresh start. Some of the old data you want to retain, other data you want to clean-up. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Once the application is installed from a technical perspective, the user base needs to be informed and shown how to use it. If the new application is more than rip-and-replace, users need to be prepared and supported with change management. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? For IT, an implementation is successful when the application is installed. For the business, the roll-out is successful when people know how to use the new application. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Train-the-trainer, super users, business process champions and operational people all need to know how to work the new application so that the original business goals are obtained. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Without training, people will try to do the old thing with new tools. If they fail, they will reject the new tool. Explaining the original business goals and facilitation is key to adoption. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Maintain is the fourth element of the DBFMO framework. In the maintain phase, you define how you keep your Build up and running. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? You’ve spent a considerable amount of resources creating and commissioning your Build. What do you need to do to protect that investment and ensure its capability to deliver on the value promised in the Design phase? WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The people that respond to technical questions post implementation. Typically, you’ll need a support desk infrastructure for this. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Once an application goes live with real users, the questions start pouring in. To avoid rejection of the application, you’ll need to funnel the feedback. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The people/function that updates the roadmap based on changing requirements and technology. A roadmap team will need to triage and prioritise all requests in relation to a consistent direction. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? The only certainty is change. Once an application hits the street, new and updated requirements arise. A roadmap ensures future compatibility, both technical and business. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The team that deploys changes to the exisiting code base. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Stand still is like moving backwards. A business application needs continuous development. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Operate is the fifth element of the DBFMO framework. In this phase, you define how you drive adoption and usage. What additional effort do you need to ‘pour in’ to keep your Build running. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? It's not about owning a product/ application but using it. Only in operating your Build, you create value. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? A business application owner acts as pivot and gatekeeper of your Build. This is your first line of support for all users of the Build. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? The business application owner filters on user, business and technical request in order to route the request to the right place. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The function that monitors application usage, detects blockages and facilitates training. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Without adoption, the tool is just a tool. With adoption, the tool is the conduit to the defined business outcomes. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? To run your Build you need a production environment hosted on-prem or in the cloud. Backup and data storage space can be a substantial cost element. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Even if you build on an existing platform, any extra ventures come at a cost. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The helpdesk to answer the ‘how to’ questions. How do I use the new tool to do xyz? Show me. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? Often the tools are capable of much more than we use. Especially if the new tool is designed for business transformation. If people can’t unlock built-in functionality, it is a poorly designed tool. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? The team that continuously works on data cleansing and transformation. WHY IS IT RELEVANT? New insights require data to be in new formats. Old labels need new handles. Data is constantly in motion.